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FTSM directive

Forms preliminary estimates of parameters in time-series models.

Option

PRINT = string tokens What to print (models); default *

Parameters

TSM = TSMs Models whose parameters are to be estimated
CORRELATIONS = variates Auto- or cross-correlations on which to base estimates for each model
BOXCOXTRANSFORM = scalars Box-Cox transformation parameter
CONSTANT = scalars Constant term
VARIANCE = scalars Variance of ARIMA model, or ratio of input variance to output variance for transfer model

Description

The TFIT directive carries out a lot of computation to find the best estimates of the parameters of a time-series model. The amount of computation can be reduced if you provide rough initial values for the parameters, especially when there are many of them. This can be done using the FTSM directive. FTSM obtains moment estimators of a simple kind, by solving equations between the unknown parameters of the ARIMA or transfer-function model and the autocorrelations or cross-correlations calculated from the observed time series. Sometimes these equations have no solution, or their solution provides values inconsistent with the constraints demanded of the parameters. If so, Genstat sets the corresponding parameters to missing values. The form of the directive is the same for ARIMA and transfer-function models, but the interpretation is slightly different.

To obtain preliminary estimates of ARIMA model parameters, a typical FTSM statement might be

FTSM [PRINT=model] Yatsm; CORRELATIONS=Yacf; BOXCOX=Ytran;\

            CONSTANT=Ymean; VARIANCE=Yvar

You must previously have declared Yatsm to be a TSM structure (i.e. a time-series model structure) of type ARIMA with appropriate orders, and lags if you need to specify them. Genstat takes this model to be associated with observations of a time series yt. The aim of the directive is to set the values of the variate of model parameters equal to preliminary estimates derived from the variate Yacf and scalars Ytran, Ymn and Yvar.

The variate Yacf should contain sample autocorrelations r0rm. You should obtain these from the original time series, stored in variate Y say, by first using the CALCULATE directive to transform Y according to the Box-Cox equations with transformation parameter Ytran (if you do indeed want a transformation). You should then form the differences of the transformed series, according to the degrees of differencing already set in the model; you can use the DIFFERENCE function with the CALCULATE directive for this. Finally, you should use the AUTOCORRELATIONS parameter of the CORRELATE directive to store the autocorrelations of the resulting series in Yacf. Often you will have done these operations already in order to produce Yacf for selecting a model.

At the same time, you can supply the scalars Ytran, Ymean and Yvar to set the first three elements of the parameters variate of Yatsm; these cannot be set using Yacf alone. The scalar Ytran should be the parameter used to transform Y, and Genstat will copy it into the first element of the variate of parameters. Genstat will copy the scalar Ymean into the second element, which is the constant term of the model; the recommended value for this is the sample mean of the series from which Yacf is calculated, but you may prefer the value 0. The scalar Yvar is used to set the innovation variance, which is the third element of the variate of parameters. The recommended value is the sample variance of the series from which Yacf is calculated. If you set Yvar to 1.0, then Genstat will set the innovation variance to the variance ratio Variance(e)/Variance(y), as estimated from Yacf according to the model.

If any of the BOXCOX, CONSTANT or VARIANCE parameters is not set, Genstat will leave unchanged the corresponding value in the variate of parameters of the model. The only exception to this rule is if a parameter is missing. Then Genstat initially sets the transformation parameter to 1.0 (corresponding to no transformation), and the constant to 0.0; the innovation variance is left missing.

A typical FTSM statement for a transfer-function model might be

FTSM [PRINT=model] Xytsm; CORRELATIONS=Xyccf; BOXCOX=Xtran;\

  CONSTANT=Xmean; VARIANCE=Xyvratio

You must previously have declared the time-series model Xytsm to be of type transferfunction with appropriate orders, and lags if you need to specify them. Genstat assumes that this model represents the dependence of an output series yt on an input series xt in a multi-input model. The directive sets the values of the parameters of the model equal to preliminary estimates derived from Xyccf, Xtran, Xmean and Xyvratio.

You should put into the variate Xyccf an estimate of the impulse-response function of the model, from which Genstat will derive the parameters. This estimate is usually a sample cross-correlation sequence r0rm obtained from variates Y and X1 containing observations of yt and xt according to one of the following four rules:

(a)  In the simple case, the differencing orders of Xytsm are all zero, and you do not want to use any Box-Cox transformation of either yt or xt. Then the cross-correlations should be those between variates Alpha and Beta, say, derived from X and Y by filtering (or pre-whitening), see the TFILTER directive. The ARIMA model that you used for the filter should be the same for X and Y, and you should choose it so that the values of Alpha represent white noise.

(b)  If the differencing orders of Xytsm are not zero, then before you calculate the cross-correlations you should further difference the series Beta as specified by these orders.

(c)  If a Box-Cox transformation is associated with yt, you should apply it to Y before the filtering. However this transformation parameter must not be associated with Xytsm: you should assign it to the univariate ARIMA model that you have specified for the error term.

(d)  If a Box-Cox transformation is associated with xt, it must be the same as the one you used in the ARIMA model for xt from which the series Alpha was derived. The scalar Xtran must contain this transformation parameter. Genstat copies it into the first element of the parameter variate of Xytsm. If the Box-Cox parameter is unset, Genstat leaves the transformation parameter of Xytsm unchanged; it is set to 1.0 if it was originally missing.

Genstat copies the scalar Xmean into the second element of the variate of parameters. The recommended value is the sample mean of X after any transformation has been applied. If you do not set the CONSTANT parameter, Genstat leaves the constant parameter of Xytsm unchanged; it is set to 0.0 if it was originally missing.

You use the scalar Xyvratio to obtain the correct scaling of non-seasonal moving-average parameters in Xytsm. All the other autoregressive parameters and moving-average parameters are invariant under scale changes in yt and xt. You should set the scalar to the ratio of the sample variances of the variates from which the cross-correlations were calculated; that is, Variance(Beta)/Variance(Alpha). If you do not set this, Genstat uses the value 1.0.

You can use FTSM to go backwards from autocorrelations to the original time-series model. If you apply it to the autocorrelations that were constructed from a time-series model by means of TSUMMARIZE, it will recover the parameters of the model exactly, provided the model is non-seasonal. If the model contains seasonal parameters, with seasonal period s, the parameters will not be recovered exactly, except in one special circumstance: that is, when the non-seasonal part of the model, considered in isolation from the seasonal part, has a theoretical autocorrelation function that is zero beyond lag s/2. Otherwise, the non-seasonal and seasonal parts of the model interact, and so Genstat loses accuracy in the recovered parameters. When you use sample autocorrelations, this loss of accuracy tends to be small in comparison with the sampling fluctuations of the estimates. But if s is small, say s=4 for quarterly data, the loss could be serious. Exactly the same considerations apply to transfer-function models.

Option: PRINT.

Parameters: TSM, CORRELATIONS, BOXCOXTRANSFORM, CONSTANT, VARIANCE.

See also

Directives: TSM, TDISPLAY, TFILTER, TFIT, TFORECAST, TKEEP, TRANSFERFUNCTION, TSUMMARIZE.

Procedures: BJESTIMATE, BJFORECAST, BJIDENTIFY.

Commands for: Time series.

Example

" Example TFIT-1: Fitting a seasonal ARIMA model"

VARIATE time; VALUES=!(1...120)
FILEREAD [NAME='%gendir%/examples/TFIT-1.DAT'] apt

" Display the correlation structure of the logged data"
CALCULATE lapt = LOG(apt)
BJIDENTIFY [GRAPHICS=high; WINDOWS=!(5,6,7,8)] lapt

" Calculate the autocorrelations of the differences and seasonally
  differenced series"
CALCULATE ddslapt = DIFFERENCE(DIFFERENCE(lapt; 12); 1)
CORRELATE [PRINT=auto; MAXLAG=48] ddslapt; AUTO=ddsr

" Define a model for the series: 
  IMA(1) (that is, a model with a single moving-average parameter
          applied to the differences of the series)
  plus a seasonal IMA(1) component"
TSM [MODELTYPE=arima] airpass; ORDERS=!((0,1,1)2,12)
" Form preliminary estimates of the parameters, using a log transformation
  (BOXCOX=0 is equivalent to log)"
FTSM [PRINT=model] airpass; ddsr; BOXCOX=0
" Get the best estimates, fixing the constant"
TFIT [CONSTANT=fix] SERIES=apt; TSM=airpass

" Graph the residuals against time"
TKEEP RESID=resids
DGRAPH [WINDOW=3; KEYWINDOW=0; TITLE='Residuals vs Time'] resids; time

" Test the independence of the residuals"
CORRELATE [GRAPH=auto; MAXLAG=48] resids; TEST=S
PRINT 'Test statistic for independence of the residuals',S
Updated on September 22, 2020

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