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Genotype by Environment

Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) affect how well a genotype performs in different environments. In plant breeding, multi-environment trials are conducted to evaluate the performance of genotypes across a range of environments so that best performing breeding lines can be identified and recommended.

GGE and AMMI Biplots Overview

The AMMI and GGE biplots are useful visualization tools that help identify which genotypes perform best for specific environments, and also which genotypes are more broadly adapted.

AMMI Biplots

The AMMI model combines standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with principal component analysis.

GGE Biplots

The GGE biplot shows how different genotypes respond to diverse environments.

Updated on July 4, 2022

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