### 1. Highlights

● 24 new procedures

● parametric bootstrap for fixed effects in `REML`

(`VBOOTSTRAP`

)

● permutation tests for random effects in `REML`

(`VRPERMTEST`

)

● parallel `REML`

analysis of several y-variates, collating the output (`VAYPARALLEL`

)

● space filling designs (`AFDISCREPANCY`

, `AGSPACEFILLINGDESIGN`

)

● non-orthogonal multi-stratum designs (`AGNONORTHOGONALDESIGN`

)

● `AMMI`

stability values

● support vector machines (`SVMFIT`

, `SVMPREDICT`

)

● VARMA models (`TVARMA`

, `TVFORECAST`

, `TVGRAPH`

)

● One-dimensional density (or violin) plots (`DXDENSITY`

)

### 2. What’s new

**2.1 Directives**

None.

**2.2 Procedures**

`ACONFIDENCE`

calculates simultaneous confidence intervals for `ANOVA`

means.

`AFDISCREPANCY`

calculates the discrepancy of a design.

`AGNONORTHOGONALDESIGN`

generates non-orthogonal multi-stratum designs.

`AGSPACEFILLINGDESIGN`

generates space filling designs.

`AMTKEEP`

saves information from the analysis of a multitiered design by `AMTIER`

.

`AU2RDA`

saves results from an unbalanced analysis of variance, by `AUNBALANCED`

, in R data frames.

`DARROW`

adds arrows to an existing plot.

`DXDENSITY`

produces one-dimensional density (or violin) plots.

`DYPOLAR`

produces polar plots.

`FACMERGE`

merges levels of factors.

`FMEGAENVIRONMENTS`

Forms mega-environments based on winning genotypes from an AMMI-2 model.

`FROWCANONICALMATRIX`

puts a matrix into row canonical, or reduced row echelon, form.

`RRETRIEVE`

retrieves a regression save structure from an external file.

`RSTORE`

stores a regression save structure in an external file.

`SVMERGE`

merges strata prior to survey analysis.

`SVMFIT`

fits a support vector machine.

`SVMPREDICT`

forms the predictions using a support vector machine.

`TVARMA`

fits a vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model.

`TVFORECAST`

forecasts future values from a vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model.

`TVGRAPH`

plots a vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model.

`VAYPARALLEL`

does the same `REML`

analysis for several y-variates, and collates the output.

`VBOOTSTRAP`

performs a parametric bootstrap of the fixed effects in a `REML`

analysis.

`VRPERMTEST`

performs permutation tests for random terms in `REML`

analysis.

`VSPECTRALCHECK`

forms the spectral components from the canonical components of a multitiered design, and constrains any negative spectral components to zero.

**2.2 Functions**

None.

### 3. What’s changed

Most of the changes are compatible with Release 17, the previous release. There are a few commands, however, where new options or parameters have been inserted into the existing lists. These may cause problems in statements where option or parameter names have been omitted or abbreviated (see Section 1.7.1 of Part 1 of the *Guide to the Genstat Command Language* for details). To avoid any difficulty, the name of the option/parameter after the new option/parameter should be given explicitly, and not abbreviated to fewer than four characters.

Any command, where changes in Release 18 may cause incompatibilities in existing programs, is marked in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 by the symbol ^{†}. The full details are given in Section 3.4.

**3.1 Directives**

`AKEEP`

now adjusts degrees of freedom from repeated-measurements analyses.

`CLUSTER`

has a new setting `PRINT=random`

, to obtain output for the configurations obtained from every random start.

`FACROTATE`

has two new settings of the `PRINT`

option: `loadings`

prints the rotated loadings (or factors), and `orthogonalrotationmatrix`

prints the rotation matrix. The setting `rotation`

, which was the original setting provided to print the rotated loadings, is retained as a synonym of `loadings`

, so that existing programs will continue to run. However, in view of the confusion with the `ROTATION`

parameter, it may be deleted in a future release.

`GROUPS`

can now form the level or labels from the `LIMITS`

vector, and omit the (unbounded) group that occurs below the lowest limit when `BOUNDARIES=lower`

, or above the final limit when `BOUNDARIES=upper`

.

`REML`

and `VKEEP`

now leave any restrictions on the variates supplied to save residuals or fitted values unchanged, and no longer set the values in the restricted units to missing.

**3.2 Procedures**

^{†}`AFAUGMENTED`

now allows the test genotypes to have unequal replication, and the plots to contain different numbers of sub-plots.

`ALLDIFFERENCES`

now allows you the define groupings classified by more than one factor.

`AMMI`

now produces AMMI stability values (ASV’s), and can save the analysis-of-variance table.

`AREPMEASURES`

now allows you to save the `ANOVA`

save structure.

`A2RDA`

can now save combined residuals and variates containing the treatment effect and covariate regression coefficients or the residuals (from all the strata).

`DBIPLOT`

now allows you to control the sizes of the symbols and labels in the plot.

`DIRECTORY`

now allows you to view subdirectories.

`DFRTEXT`

can now add text onto rectangular plots.

`DMSCATTER`

can now plot boxplots, density plots or dot histograms, instead of histograms, as the one-dimensional summaries.

`FMFACTORS`

now allows you to request that the labels of multi-response factors, formed from textual codes, should remain in the order in which they are found in the data, rather than being sorted alphabetically.

`FREGULAR`

now allows you to supply the values to insert.

`GGEBIPLOT`

now allows you to specify the window for the key.

`MACALCULATE`

can now save the corrected red and green values.

`MAHISTOGRAM`

allows you to set the axis bounds.

`PDESIGN`

can now display the factor labels in the table, instead of levels.

^{†}`RWALD`

can now save the test probabilities and the residual degrees of freedom that are used for F statistics when the dispersion is estimated.

`TABINSERT`

now allows you to insert values into margins of a table.

^{†}`TALLY`

can now form tally tables for separate groupings within the data.

`VAOPTIONS`

now allows you to request that the accumulated summary, printed from `VARANDOM`

, should include models that fail to fit or that have bound variance parameters.

^{†}`VTCOMPARISONS`

now allows you to specify a number of residual degrees of freedom, to use if the numbers of denominator degrees of freedom in the table of tests for fixed effects are unavailable.

**3.3 Functions**

None.

**3.4 Incompatibilities**

`AFAUGMENTED` procedure |
option `NREPTEST` inserted before `SEED` . |
---|---|

`DBIPLOT` procedure |
option `SIZEMULTIPLIER` inserted before `SAVE` . |

`FORMULA` directive |
a bug has been corrected that meant that dummies in values supplied by the `VALUES` parameter were not substituted, like those supplied by the `VALUES` option. This is reported here, although it is unlikely to affect existing programs. |

`SETALLOCATIONS` directive |
a bug meant that the default for the `NREQUIRED` option was saving all possible allocations, rather that just one as specified in the documentation. This has now been corrected, and so you need to set `NREQUIRED` to a scalar containing a missing value e.g. by `NREQUIRED` `=` `!s(*)` if you want to save them all. |

`REML` and `VKEEP` directives |
now leave any restrictions on the variates supplied to save residuals or fitted values unchanged, and no longer set the values in the restricted units to missing. |

`RWALD` procedure |
option `RDF` inserted before `SAVE` . |

`TALLY` procedure |
parameter `GROUPS` inserted before `LIMITS` . |

`VTCOMPARISONS` procedure |
options `DFMETHOD` , `DFGIVEN` and `FMETHOD` inserted before `SAVE` . |