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Select menu: Data | Transformations

This provides a range of standard transformations for data.

  1. After you have imported your data, from the menu select 
    Data | Transformations.

Available data

This lists variates that can be used for Data and Save In. Double-click a name to copy it into the current input field, alternatively you can just type it in from the keyboard.


A number of standard transformations are available as listed below. The equations use X to represent the data variate, and may involve one or two additional scalar constants, denoted by c and m, values for which must be specified.


Specifies a variate containing data to be transformed.


Transformation Genstat Expression
Linear m * (X + c)
Power (X + c)**m
Square root (X + c)**0.5
Log (base 10) log10(X + c)
Log (base e) log(X + c)
Antilog (base 10) 10**X – c
Antilog (base e) exp(X) – c
Exponential exp(X + c)
Logit log(X / (c – X))
Inverse logit c / (1 + exp(-X))
Double log log(-log(X/c))
Inverse double log c * exp(-exp(X))
Complementary log-log log(-log(1 – (X/c)))
Inverse complementary log-log c * (1 – exp(-exp(X)))
Accumulation value in unit i of result is the sum of the first i units of X
Differencing value in unit i of result is set to xi − xi-c


Save in

Specifies a data structure to contain the transformed values.

Parameters in equation

Lets you specify values for the additional constants, m and c, as appropriate.

Display in spreadsheet

Lets you display the results in a spreadsheet. You can select the sheet from the list of current open spreadsheets or request a new spreadsheet be created. Note: the number of rows of the spreadsheet must match the length of the results formed by the calculation, otherwise a new sheet will be used.

Action Icons

Pin Controls whether to keep the dialog open when you click Run. When the pin is down  the dialog will remain open, otherwise when the pin is up  the dialog will close.
Restore Restore names into edit fields and default settings.
Clear Clear all fields and list boxes.
Help Open the Help topic for this dialog.

See also

Updated on May 2, 2019

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