`ADD`

adds extra terms to a linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, or nonlinear model.

`ADDPOINTS`

adds points for new objects to a principal coordinates analysis.

`ADISPLAY`

displays further output from analyses produced by `ANOVA`

.

`AFMINABERRATION`

forms minimum aberration factorial or fractional-factorial designs.

`AFRESPONSESURFACE`

uses the BLKL algorithm to construct designs for estimating response surfaces.

`AKEEP`

copies information from an `ANOVA`

analysis into Genstat data structures.

`ANOVA`

analyses y-variates by analysis of variance according to the model defined by earlier `BLOCKSTRUCTURE`

, `COVARIATE`

, and `TREATMENTSTRUCTURE`

statements.

`ASRULES`

derives association rules from transaction data.

`ASSIGN`

sets elements of pointers and dummies.

`AXES`

defines the axes in each window for high-resolution graphics.

`AXIS`

defines an oblique axis for high-resolution graphics.

`BARCHART`

plots bar charts in high-resolution graphics.

`BASSESS`

assesses potential splits for regression and classification trees.

`BCUT`

cuts a tree at a defined node, discarding nodes and information below it.

`BGROW`

adds new branches to a node of a tree.

`BIDENTIFY`

identifies specimens using a tree.

`BJOIN`

extends a tree by joining another tree to a terminal node.

`BLOCKSTRUCTURE`

defines the blocking structure of the design and hence the strata and the error terms.

`BREAK`

suspends execution of the statements in the current channel or control structure and takes subsequent statements from the channel specified.

`CALCULATE`

calculates numerical values for data structures.

`CALLS`

lists library procedures called by a procedure.

`CAPTION`

prints captions in standardized formats.

`CASE`

introduces a “multiple-selection” control structure.

`CATALOGUE`

displays the contents of a backing-store file.

`CLOSE`

closes files.

`CLUSTER`

forms a non-hierarchical classification.

`COKRIGE`

calculates kriged estimates using a model fitted to the sample variograms and cross-variograms of a set of variates.

`COLOUR`

defines the red, green and blue intensities to be used for the Genstat colours with certain graphics devices.

`COMBINE`

combines or omits “slices” of a multi-way data structure (table, matrix, or variate).

`COMMANDINFORMATION`

provides information about whether (and how) a command has been implemented.

`CONCATENATE`

concatenates and truncates lines (units) of text structures; allows the case of letters to be changed.

`CONTOUR`

is a synonym for `LPCONTOUR`

.

`COPY`

forms a transcript of a job.

`CORRELATE`

forms correlations between variates, autocorrelations of variates, and lagged cross-correlations between variates.

`COUNTER`

increments a multi-digit counter using non base-10 arithmetic.

`COVARIATE`

specifies covariates for use in subsequent `ANOVA`

statements.

`CVA`

performs canonical variates analysis.

`DBITMAP`

plots a bit map of RGB colours.

`DCLEAR`

clears a graphics screen.

`DCONTOUR`

draws contour plots on a plotter or graphics monitor.

`DDISPLAY`

redraws the current graphical display.

`DEBUG`

puts an implicit `BREAK`

statement after the current statement and after every `NSTATEMENTS`

subsequent statements, until an `ENDDEBUG`

is reached.

`DECLARE`

declares one or more customized data structures.

`DELETE`

deletes the attributes and values of structures.

`DEVICE`

switches between (high-resolution) graphics devices.

`DFINISH`

ends a sequence of related high-resolution plots.

`DFONT`

defines the default font for high-resolution graphics.

`DGRAPH`

draws graphs on a plotter or graphics monitor.

`DHISTOGRAM`

draws histograms on a plotter or graphics monitor.

`DIAGONALMATRIX`

declares one or more diagonal matrix data structures.

`DISPLAY`

prints, or reprints, diagnostic messages.

`DISTRIBUTION`

estimates the parameters of continuous and discrete distributions.

`DKEEP`

saves information from the last plot on a particular device.

`DLOAD`

loads the graphics environment settings from an external file.

`DPIE`

draws a pie chart on a plotter or graphics monitor.

`DREAD`

reads the locations of points from an interactive graphical device.

`DROP`

drops terms from a linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, or nonlinear model.

`DSAVE`

saves the current graphics environment settings to an external file.

`DSHADE`

plots a shade diagram of 3-dimensional data.

`DSTART`

starts a sequence of related high-resolution plots.

`DSURFACE`

produces perspective views of a two-way arrays of numbers.

`DUMMY`

declares one or more dummy data structures.

`DUMP`

prints information about data structures, and internal system information.

`DUPLICATE`

forms new data structures with attributes taken from an existing structure.

`D3GRAPH`

plots a 3-dimensional graph.

`D3HISTOGRAM`

plots three-dimensional histograms.

`EDIT`

edits text vectors.

`ELSE`

introduces the default set of statements in block-if or in multiple-selection control structures.

`ELSIF`

introduces a set of alternative statements in a block-if control structure.

`ENDBREAK`

returns to the original channel or control structure and continues execution.

`ENDCASE`

indicates the end of a “multiple-selection” control structure.

`ENDDEBUG`

cancels a `DEBUG`

statement.

`ENDFOR`

indicates the end of the contents of a loop.

`ENDIF`

indicates the end of a block-if control structure.

`ENDJOB`

ends a Genstat job.

`ENDPROCEDURE`

indicates the end of the contents of a Genstat procedure.

`ENQUIRE`

provides details about files opened by Genstat.

`EQUATE`

transfers data between structures of different sizes or types (but the same modes i.e. numerical or text) or where transfer is not from single structure to single structure.

`ESTIMATE`

is a synonym for `TFIT`

.

`EXECUTE`

executes the statements contained within a text.

`EXIT`

exits from a control structure.

`EXPRESSION`

declares one or more expression data structures.

`FACROTATE`

rotates factor loadings from a principal components, canonical variates or factor analysis.

`FACTOR`

declares one or more factor data structures.

`FARGUMENTS`

forms lists of arguments involved in an expression.

`FAULT`

checks whether to issue a diagnostic, i.e. a fault, warning or message.

`FCA`

performs factor analysis.

`FCLASSIFICATION`

forms a classification set for each term in a formula, breaks a formula up into separate formulae (one for each term), and applies a limit to the number of factors and variates in the terms of a formula.

`FCOPY`

makes copies of files.

`FCOVARIOGRAM`

forms a covariogram structure containing auto-variograms of individual variates and cross-variograms for pairs from a list of variates.

`FDELETE`

deletes files.

`FILTER`

is a synonym for `TFILTER`

.

`FIT`

fits a linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, or generalized nonlinear model.

`FITCURVE`

fits a standard nonlinear regression model.

`FITNONLINEAR`

fits a nonlinear regression model or optimizes a scalar function.

`FKEY`

forms design keys for multi-stratum experimental designs, allowing for confounded and aliased treatments.

`FLRV`

forms the values of LRV structures.

`FOR`

introduces a loop; subsequent statements define the contents of the loop, which is terminated by the directive `ENDFOR`

.

`FORECAST`

is a synonym for `TFORECAST`

.

`FORMULA`

declares one or more formula data structures.

`FOURIER`

calculates cosine or Fourier transforms of real or complex series.

`FPSEUDOFACTORS`

determines patterns of confounding and aliasing from design keys, and extends the treatment model to incorporate the necessary pseudo-factors.

`FRAME`

defines the positions and appearamce of the plotting windows within the frame of a high-resolution graph.

`FRENAME`

renames files.

`FRQUANTILES`

forms regression quantiles.

`FSIMILARITY`

forms a similarity matrix or a between-group-elements similarity matrix or prints a similarity matrix.

`FSSPM`

forms the values of SSPM structures.

`FTSM`

forms preliminary estimates of parameters in time-series models.

`FVARIOGRAM`

forms experimental variograms.

`GENERATE`

generates factor values for designed experiments.

`GET`

accesses details of the “environment” of a Genstat job.

`GETATTRIBUTE`

accesses attributes of structures.

`GETLOCATIONS`

finds locations of an identifier within a pointer, or a string within a factor or text, or a number within any numerical data structure.

`GRAPH`

is a synonym for `LPGRAPH`

.

`GROUPS`

forms a factor (or grouping variable) from a variate or text, together with the set of distinct values that occur.

`HCLUSTER`

performs hierarchical cluster analysis.

`HDISPLAY`

displays results ancillary to hierarchical cluster analyses: matrix of mean similarities between and within groups, a set of nearest neighbours for each unit, a minimum spanning tree, and the most typical elements from each group.

`HELP`

provides help information about Genstat.

`HISTOGRAM`

is a synonym for `LPHISTOGRAM`

.

`HLIST`

lists the data matrix in abbreviated form.

`HREDUCE`

forms a reduced similarity matrix (referring to the `GROUPS`

instead of the original units).

`HSUMMARIZE`

forms and prints a group by levels table for each test together with appropriate summary statistics for each group.

`IF`

introduces a block-if control structure.

`INPUT`

specifies the input file from which to take further statements.

`INTERPOLATE`

interpolates values at intermediate points.

`IRREDUNDANT`

forms irredundant test sets for the efficient identification of a set of objects.

`JOB`

starts a Genstat job.

`KRIGE`

calculates kriged estimates using a model fitted to the sample variogram.

`LIST`

lists details of the data structures currently available within Genstat.

`LPCONTOUR`

produces contour maps of two-way arrays of numbers using character (i.e. line-printer) graphics.

`LPGRAPH`

produces point and line plots using character (i.e. line-printer) graphics.

`LPHISTOGRAM`

produces histograms using character (i.e. line-printer) graphics.

`LRV`

declares one or more LRV data structures.

`MARGIN`

forms and calculates marginal values for tables.

`MATRIX`

declares one or more matrix data structures.

`MCOVARIOGRAM`

fits models to sets of variograms and cross-variograms.

`MDS`

performs non-metric multidimensional scaling.

`MERGE`

copies subfiles from backing-store files into a single file.

`MODEL`

defines the response variate(s) and the type of model to be fitted for linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, and nonlinear models.

`MONOTONIC`

fits an increasing monotonic regression of y on x.

`NAG`

calls an algorithm from the NAG Library.

`NNDISPLAY`

displays output from a multi-layer perceptron neural network fitted by `NNFIT`

.

`NNFIT`

fits a multi-layer perceptron neural network.

`NNPREDICT`

forms predictions from a multi-layer perceptron neural network fitted by `NNFIT`

.

`OPEN`

opens files.

`OPTION`

defines the options of a Genstat procedure with information to allow them to be checked when the procedure is executed.

`OR`

introduces a set of alternative statements in a “multiple-selection” control structure.

`OUTPUT`

defines where output is to be stored or displayed.

`OWN`

does work specified in Fortran subprograms linked into Genstat by the user.

`PAGE`

moves to the top of the next page of an output file.

`PARAMETER`

defines the parameters of a Genstat procedure with information to allow them to be checked when the procedure is executed.

`PASS`

does work specified in subprograms supplied by the user, but not linked into Genstat. This directive may not be available on some computers.

`PCO`

performs principal coordinates analysis, also principal components and canonical variates analysis (but with different weighting from that used in CVA) as special cases.

`PCORELATE`

relates the observed values on a set of variables to the results of a principal coordinates analysis.

`PCP`

performs principal components analysis.

`PEN`

defines the properties of “pens” for high-resolution graphics.

`POINTER`

declares one or more pointer data structures.

`PREDICT`

forms predictions from a linear or generalized linear model.

`PRINT`

prints data in tabular format in an output file, unformatted file, or text.

`PROCEDURE`

introduces a Genstat procedure.

`QDIALOG`

produces a modal dialog box to obtain a response from the user.

`QRD`

calculates QR decompositions of matrices.

`RANDOMIZE`

randomizes the units of a designed experiment or the elements of a factor or variate.

`RBDISPLAY`

displays output from a radial basis function model fitted by `RBFIT`

.

`RBFIT`

fits a radial basis function model.

`RBPREDICT`

forms predictions from a radial basis function model fitted by `RBFIT`

.

`RCYCLE`

controls iterative fitting of generalized linear, generalized additive, and nonlinear models, and specifies parameters, bounds etc for nonlinear models.

`RDISPLAY`

displays the fit of a linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, or nonlinear model.

`READ`

reads data from an input file, an unformatted file, or a text.

`RECORD`

dumps a job so that it can later be restarted by a `RESUME`

statement.

`REDUCE`

is a synonym for `HREDUCE`

.

`REFORMULATE`

modifies a formula or an expression to operate on a different set of data structures.

`RELATE`

is a synonym for `PCORELATE`

.

`REML`

fits a variance-components model by residual (or restricted) maximum likelihood.

`RENAME`

assigns new identifiers to data structures.

`RESTRICT`

defines a restricted set of units of vectors for subsequent statements.

`RESUME`

restarts a recorded job.

`RETRIEVE`

retrieves structures from a subfile.

`RETURN`

returns to a previous input stream (text vector or input channel).

`RFUNCTION`

estimates functions of parameters of a nonlinear model.

`RKEEP`

stores results from a linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, or nonlinear model.

`RKESTIMATES`

saves estimates and other information about individual terms in a regression analysis.

`ROTATE`

does a Procrustes rotation of one configuration of points to fit another.

`SCALAR`

declares one or more scalar data structures.

`SET`

sets details of the “environment” of a Genstat job.

`SETALLOCATIONS`

runs through all ways of allocating a set of objects to subsets.

`SETCALCULATE`

performs Boolean set calculations on the contents of vectors or pointers.

`SETOPTION`

sets or modifies defaults of options of Genstat directives or procedures.

`SETPARAMETER`

sets or modifies defaults of parameters of Genstat directives or procedures.

`SETRELATE`

compares two sets of values in two data structures.

`SET2FORMULA`

forms a model formula using structures supplied in a pointer.

`SHELLEXECUTE`

launches executables or opens files in another application using their file extension.

`SKIP`

skips lines in input or output files.

`SORT`

sorts units of vectors according to an index vector.

`SPLOAD`

loads Genstat spreadsheet files.

`SSPM`

declares one or more SSPM data structures.

`STEP`

selects terms to include in or exclude from a linear, generalized linear, or generalized additive model according to the ratio of residual mean squares.

`STOP`

ends a Genstat program.

`STORE`

to store structures in a subfile of a backing-store file.

`STRUCTURE`

defines a compound data structure.

`SUSPEND`

suspends execution of Genstat to carry out commands in the operating system. This directive may not be available on some computers.

`SVD`

calculates singular value decompositions of matrices.

`SWITCH`

adds terms to, or drops them from a linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, or nonlinear model.

`SYMMETRICMATRIX`

declares one or more symmetric matrix data structures.

`TABLE`

declares one or more table data structures.

`TABULATE`

forms summary tables of variate values.

`TDISPLAY`

displays further output after an analysis by `TFIT`

.

`TERMS`

specifies a maximal model, containing all terms to be used in subsequent linear, generalized linear, generalized additive, and nonlinear models.

`TEXT`

declares one or more text data structures.

`TFILTER`

filters time series by time-series models.

`TFIT`

estimates parameters in Box-Jenkins models for time series.

`TFORECAST`

forecasts future values of a time series.

`TKEEP`

saves results after an analysis by `TFIT`

.

`TRANSFERFUNCTION`

specifies input series and transfer-function models for subsequent estimation of a model for an output series.

`TREATMENTSTRUCTURE`

specifies the treatment terms to be fitted by subsequent `ANOVA`

statements.

`TREE`

declares a tree, & initializes it to have a single node known as the root.

`TRY`

displays results of single-term changes to a linear, generalized linear, or generalized additive model.

`TSM`

declares one or more TSM data structures.

`TSUMMARIZE`

displays characteristics of time series models.

`TXBREAK`

breaks up a text structure into individual words.

`TXCONSTRUCT`

forms a text structure by appending or concatenating values of scalars, variates, texts, factors, pointers or formulae; allows the case of letters to be changed or values to be truncated and reversed.

`TXFIND`

finds a subtext within a text structure.

`TXINTEGERCODES`

converts textual characters to and from their corresponding integer codes.

`TXPOSITION`

locates strings within the lines of a text structure.

`TXREPLACE`

replaces a subtext within a text structure.

`TX2VARIATE`

converts text structures to variates.

`UNITS`

defines an auxiliary vector of labels and/or the length of any vector whose length is not defined when a statement needing it is executed.

`VARIATE`

declares one or more variate data structures.

`VCOMPONENTS`

defines the variance-components model for `REML`

.

`VCYCLE`

controls details of the `REML`

algorithm.

`VDISPLAY`

displays further output from a `REML`

analysis.

`VKEEP`

copies information from a `REML`

analysis into Genstat data structures.

`VPEDIGREE`

generates an inverse relationship matrix for use when fitting animal or plant breeding models by `REML`

.

`VPREDICT`

forms predictions from a `REML`

model.

`VRESIDUAL`

defines the residual term for a `REML`

model.

`VSTATUS`

prints the current model settings for `REML`

.

`VSTRUCTURE`

defines a variance structure for random effects in a `REML`

model

`WORKSPACE`

accesses private data structures for use in procedures.

`XAXIS`

defines the x-axis in each window for high-resolution graphics.

`YAXIS`

defines the y-axis in each window for high-resolution graphics.

`ZAXIS`

defines the z-axis in each window for high-resolution graphics.

`%CD`

changes the current directory.

# List of directives

Updated on September 22, 2020